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Thread: AM F1180 Abbreviation

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    Default AM F1180 Abbreviation

    One of the entries on a F1180 I have has the purpose of the flight as
    'Authorised Low Flying, & F. L. Exercise (minimum 500ft)'.

    Can anyone provide the F.L.

    regards

    Chris
    Last edited by Chris Davies; 3rd April 2013 at 19:17. Reason: typo

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    Hi Chris,
    I am afraid it does not make any sense in this content bu the only thing which comes to my mind for FL is Forced Landings.

    Pavel
    Czechoslovak Airmen in the RAF 1940-1945
    http://cz-raf.webnode.cz

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    Hi Pavel,

    The a/c was 55 OTU Hurricane, if that helps

    Chris

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    Default 1180 mistake?

    Hi-It could be Local Flying Exercise if a mistake was made on the A.M.Form 1180 as it is very common with spelling or hand writing.

    Philip

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    Without any documentary underpinning, I am inclined to think that Pavel is probably on the right track. I think that even today forced landing practice (with a minimum height specified before climbing away again) is still carried out, usually with the supervising instructor (or even an unaccompanied pilot on own volition) putting on carb heat, closing throttle and scanning for likely looking landing areas whilst descending. Combining this exercise with "normal" low flying would be a natural thing to do.
    David D

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    Default RAF Flying Training Manual Part I Landplanes Dec 1939 Edition

    Hello Chris

    Although you can have "Faulty Landings" and "Fast Landings" Chapter 1 paras 97 and 99, I would be inclined to agree with Pavel that "F.L." in this context relates to Forced Landing practice.

    Chapter III, paragraph under "FORCED LANDING" section, para 312 is a sub-section titled "Training" dealing with forced landing practice, refers to para. 287 [Chaper III] being a section titled "Combined practice method-Engine assisted approach final glide and landing without engine"

    Very very briefly, paragraph 287 has reference to preliminary approach and general preparation and also paras. 285 and 286. Also para. 276 regarding the best way to practice final glide and landing without engine. In para. 287 (i) ... "But do not come below about 600 feet before getting within gliding distance (flaps down) of the landing point." ...

    Without looking at the ORB to see if the incident is recorded, this is likely to be forced landing training/practice, hence the reference to the 500 ft height being sanctioned.

    The "Cause" box should begin with an "L" too, denoting the incident occurred during a "Landing" attempt, I have a 1940 and 1941 list of these from a Monthly RAF Flying Accident Statistic file in the PRO /TNA, Ross has also placed a list on the Forum.

    Regards Mark
    Last edited by Mark Hood; 6th April 2013 at 10:25.

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    If I may ...

    ... this Thread is illustrative of the use of varying terms to describe the same thing. For example, in this case the initials F L are taken to be forced landing and I have no concern about that. However, if for some reason the aircraft had actually to make a 'real' forced landing, the same initials might have been used in cause coding the incident but they would then refer to an actual event. Often, a sortie which involved going through the motions would be described as: P F L for practice forced landing. A well structured brief to the pilot would then stipulate the conditions eg 'not below 500 feet' and the pilot's actions would therefore be concluded and at a minimum of 500 feet above the ground being used, the pilot would initiate overshoot action.

    The exciting bit comes when the throttle is moved forward and the engine goes; phut, phut, phut!!!!

    Colin Cummings

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    Hello Colin
    If the pilot was instructed to overshoot [or break off] at 500 feet, he is not going to get any Forced Landing "exercise" is he?

    Could the 500 feet, be the Pilot's minimum height above the ground, at which he can commence his Forced landing exercise?

    AP 129 quoted in full suggests that forced landings were actually practised and you will note a reference to 500 to 600 feet?
    Regards Mark

    "Air Publication 129"
    "(Reprinted December 1939, Incorporating A.L. No. 1-3)"

    Chapter III

    “FORCED LANDING”

    “Training”
    “312. Any pilot may, therefore, be faced with a forced landing sooner or later, and so he must be trained to be capable of landing accurately in the best field available without the assistance of the engine. This is particularly important in the case of modern aircraft, which have a steep and rapid descent with flaps down, if the engine is not used, and are usually landed with assistance of engine. Pilots should avoid getting into the habit of making flat approaches with engine; they should make their engine-assisted approaches almost as steep as the glide, using only a little engine for accuracy in the approach, and they should frequently use the combined training method of practising the final glide without engine (para. 287).”

    Combined practice method—Engine assisted approach final
    glide and landing without engine

    287. As indicated in paragraph 276 the best way to practice the final glide and landing without engine, so essential for the pilot's judgement of gliding angle, is to combine the two methods already given. This method may be used at any time provided conditions are favourable and the aerodrome is not a very small one. Accuracy in landing close to a selected point is not quite so easy as when the engine-assisted approach and landing is used, but the combination method is much easier than forced-landing without engine, and enables a pilot to land within a hundred yards or so of the selected place. The method is as follows :—

    (i) Carry out the preliminary approach and general preparation for landing ; the circuit, drill of vital actions, including lowering of flaps ; turn in and make the engine assisted approach, all as described in paras. 285 and 286. But do not come below about 600 feet before getting within gliding distance (flaps down) of the landing point. If the aircraft is down to 600 feet while still too far away the nose must be raised and throttle opened a little to fly level without loss of speed until gliding distance is reached.

    (ii) Watch carefully for the moment when the aeroplane just reaches gliding distance (flaps down), at about 500— 600 feet, and then, when quite sure that the aeroplane will glide into the aerodrome without engine, close the throttle fully, put the nose down to maintain the correct surplus gliding speed, and trim rapidly to a known setting (not by feel—that takes too long while height is being lost rapidly; furthermore, the trimming tabs on some types of aeroplane, if adjusted by feel, are fully " back", and it may not be possible, when they are so adjusted, to prevent the nose rising dangerously if full throttle is needed after a mislanding). The height at which the throttle is closed is a compromise. There is more time to settle down to a glide if the height is greater, but it is easier to glide accurately on to a point if the height is less, when the throttle is closed : 400 feet is too low—700 feet too high.
    Summary: " Close throttle—nose down—and trim."

    (iii) Complete the final glide, gradual flattening out with surplus speed, and three-point landing with stick fully back, as already described (para. 283).

    Notes : 1. It has already been indicated in para. 286 Note 5 that this landing is slightly simpler than that using engine. Once the pilot has grasped the method of using surplus speed, and a wide and gradual curve beginning higher than usual, he will find this easier because he can give all his attention and handling to controlling the attitude of his aeroplane until ground incidence is reached and it lands.

    2. Undershooting.—If the pilot closes the throttle too soon, and finds that he will undershoot, he must revert entirely to the engine-assisted landing—open the throttle and use it until after flattening-out. Otherwise, if he shut off again at about 100 feet, he might allow speed to become slightly too low for complete flattening out, owing to lack of ample height to settle down to the steep glide."
    Last edited by Mark Hood; 6th April 2013 at 15:39.

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    Default

    Gents,

    Many thanks for opening up the discussion.
    The a/c in question, hit telephone wires, then crashed into a field.

    The ORB records 'Low Flying Practice'.
    The F1180 records the reason for the accident 'Authorised Low Flying & F.L. Exercise'.
    The conclusion on the F1180 reads, 'Pilot could not resist showing off, frequently warned of this. Disobeyed orders and flew below 500ft'.

    regards

    Chris

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    Default 'Authorised Low Flying & F.L. Exercise'

    Hello Colin and Chris

    'Authorised Low Flying & F.L. Exercise'.

    Colin, you're right according to further detail from Chris from the Accident Card, it seems there was a 500 feet restriction ... 'Pilot could not resist showing off, frequently warned of this. Disobeyed orders and flew below 500ft'.

    But how can you have the Duty stating "F.L. Exercise" as well, without going through the motions of actually making a Forced Landing? I think that there is a bit more to this and that they felt that the Pilot flew below 500 feet during the 'low flying' part of the duty and lost it?

    I have found an Accident Card copy, where the Pilot was doing Circuits and Landings, but he bent the Lysander in a field and was reprimanded for flying too low as well.

    Mark
    Last edited by Mark Hood; 6th April 2013 at 18:59.

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